Indus valley civilization

* Indus civilization, also called Indus valley civilization is
the earliest known urban culture of the Indian
It is also called Harappan Civilization after the first
city to be excavated, Harappa (Punjab, Pakistan).
* Among the world’s three earliest civilizations—the other
two are those of Mesopotamia and Egypt—the Indus
civilization was the most extensive.
 Time Period:
* It was established around 3300
BC. It flourished between 2600 BC and 1900 BC. It started
declining around 1900 BC and disappeared around 1400 BC.
 Geographical Extent:
* Covered Punjab, Sindh, Balochistan, Rajasthan, Gujarat and
Western Uttar Pradesh.
* It extended from Sutkagengor (in Balochistan) in the West
to Alamgirpur (Western UP) in the East; and
from Mandu (Jammu) in the North
to Daimabad (Ahmednagar, Maharashtra) in the South. Some
Indus Valley sites have also been found as far away as
 Important Sites:
* Kalibangan (Rajasthan), Lothal, Dholavira, Rangpur,
Surkotda (Gujarat), Banawali (Haryana), Ropar (Punjab).
* In Pakistan: Harappa (on river Ravi), Mohenjodaro (on
Indus River in Sindh), Chanhudaro (in Sindh).

Some Important Features:
* The Indus Valley cities show a level of sophistication and
advancement not seen in other contemporary civilizations.
* Most cities had similar patterns. There were two parts:
a citadel and the lower town showing the presence of
hierarchy in society.
* Most cities had a Great Bath.
* There were also granaries, 2-storied houses made of burnt
bricks, closed drainage lines, excellent stormwater, and
wastewater management system, weights for measurements,
toys, pots, etc.
* A large number of seals have been discovered.
 Agriculture:
* The first civilization to cultivate cotton.
* Animals were domesticated like sheep, goats, and pigs.
* Crops were wheat, barley, cotton, ragi, dates, and peas.
* Trade was conducted with the Sumerians (Mesopotamia).
 Metal Products :
* These were produced including those with copper, bronze,
tin, and lead. Gold and silver were also known.
* Iron was not known to them.
 Religious Beliefs:
* No structures like temples or palaces have been found.
* The people worshipped male and female deities.
* A seal which was named ‘Pashupati Seal’ has been
excavated and it shows an image of a three-eyed figure.

Indus valley civilization was the most important for us…

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